The Token Books of St Saviour Southwark
an interim search site
William Ingram, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Alan H. Nelson, The University of California, Berkeley
The project was undertaken by Professor William Ingram (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) and Professor Alan H Nelson (University of California, Berkeley), assisted by a generous grant from the Office of the Provost at the University of Michigan. Ingram and Nelson transcribed the tokenbooks, Ingram taking the even-numbered books, Nelson the odd-numbered books. It follows that Ingram is responsible for errors in the transcription of even-numbered books, Nelson for errors in odd-numbered books. We both welcome suggestions and corrections. Though we attempted to coordinate our efforts, our practices were not quite identical: in our literatim transcription of surnames, for example, Nelson tended to normalize medial "v" to "u", whereas Ingram tended to retain "v"; also Nelson capitalized initial letters of all surnames, whereas Ingram retained uncapitalized initial letters. As both these differences disappear in normalizations, searches will not be much affected. We made no literatim transcription of forenames.
Abbreviations, whether of whole names (e.g. Wm for William) or of letter-sequences (e.g. M for Mar in Margery), are silently expanded. The terminal flourish which looks like a reversed-9 is transcribed as -es, -is, or -s at the discretion of the transcriber. Raised letters are incorporated without comment. Obscurities, blots, torn text, and doubts are noted under Comments.
Often, a male forename is crossed out and replaced by either "widow" or a female name; we transcribed these and other changes in the order in which they appear on the page, not in the order in which the names were originally written.
Careful scholars will consult the digital images as well as our transcriptions.
Forenames are normalized silently, while surnames are given in both normalized and literatim (i.e. original) spellings (the latter in parentheses, and subject to the variations noted above). In general, forenames and surnames are normalized to familiar forms.
General tip: Typing just the first two or three letters into the forename or surname search box will bring up the normalized spelling.
Forenames are normalized silently: thus, for example, "Wylliam" is entered as "William". Normalization of most forenames has proven unproblematic. Exceptions fall under various categories.
Forenames paleographically difficult to distinguish (we have done our best, but user should be aware of a possible error):Joan (Jone) vs. JaneEnglish vs. "foreign" spellings of common English forenames ("English" preferred):Ann for AnneCommon Welsh forenames (normalized to one form):
Edmund for Edmond
James for Jacob (where both occur for the same Surname)
Lawrence for Laurence
Lewis for Louis
Rowland for RolandPierce (for Pers)Foreign forenames:
Rice (for Reese, Rhys)Creature (Dore)Biblical names (spelling follows the King James Bible: concordances are available in most public or academic libraries, or on the internet)
Variants in which only one form is retained:Alan for Allan, AllenVariants in which multiple forms are retained:
Alexander for Saunder
Gillian for Jillian (but Jill is retained)
Katherine for Catharine, Catherine, Katharine
Magdalen for Maudlin
Ralph for Raphe
Stephen for StevenAgnes/AnnisGender-neutral forenames are retained under one spelling (females can often be distinguished by prefixes or suffixes, including "Mrs" and "widow"):
Zacheus/ZacharyDennis for DionisGender-variant forenames (listed here as a precaution):
Francis for Frances, Frauncys (later entries favor "Frances" for females, but inconsistently)
Matthew for Mathew (very occasionally feminine)Avery (male)Multi-part forenames:
Christian (usually female)
Julian (usually female)"David John" (unusual: most individuals of the time had only one forename)Surnames as Forenames (see Surnames below for "rules" of normalization):
"Owen or David" (alternative forenames given in tokenbook)ap Jenkin (in the full name ap Jenkin ap Morgan ap Fluellen)
Surnames are given in two forms, literal and normalized. Thus, for example, "Smythe" is transcribed as "Smythe", but normalized to "Smith". A default search produces both literal and normalized spellings of surnames. Users may, however, restrict a search by selecting the "Exact match" option.
General tip: Typing the first two or three letters of a surname into the search box will bring up various spellings, including the normalized spelling. In any given entry, the normalized spelling appears as the head-word, while the literatim spelling is enclosed in parentheses. (Normalized and literatim spellings are often the same.)
General rules for normalizing surnames:
Medial silent "e" and final "e" are often deleted.
Initial F or Ph is normalized to one or the other:Filcox for PhilcoxCertain terminal letters or letter-pairs are preferred:
Filliskirk for Phillischurche
Phelps for Felps
Phipps for Fipps-er for -arCertain full syllables (wherever they occur in a surname) are normalized:
-tt for -t
-y for -iebrook for brokeApparently ambiguous characters (I/J; i/j; f/s; minim-characters: n/u) are normalized to one spelling:
cock for coke
field for feild or fyld
son for sone or sonneAuger over AngerInitial and medial I/J; i/j; f/s; n/u; u/v are normalized to common spellings; initial ff is normalized to F:
Hankinson over Haukinson
Loft over Lost
Tongurie over TougurieFillisfoot for ffillivsfootteVariant spellings are normalized to most commonly-recognized forms:
Johnson for Iohnson
Underhill for VnderhillSwetnam for SwetmanOverlapping variants are individually normalized:Surnames are occasionally of two or more forms. For example, some individuals are surnamed Harlackenden, others Lackenden, others both. When both forms occur for a particular individual, e.g. Joseph Lackenden/Harlackenden, normalization is to the most common variant for each particular forename.False-etymological surnames may be retained:Stronginarm (possibly same as Armstrong)Phonetic spellings are normalized to common spellings:Moore for MorePatronymics or "location" names are presented as two words:
Rolfe for RoffeA WoodForeign surnames
Note that "foreign" surnames tend to become anglicized over the years: thus de Milder becomes Miller, de Vet becomes Devitt.Some of these are listed among patronymics or "location" names. A few foreign names give problems or are merely astonishing:Welsh surnames:
Creature Dore (Doorne, Tore, Torr, Tort)
Avery Dutchman (surname originally a descriptor?)
Love Highwayap for vp (example: ap Jenkins ap Morgan ap Fluellen)VIP surnames
Flood/Floyd/Lloyd (possibly interchangeable)
Note that Welsh surnames tend to be anglicized over the years: thus ap Owen may become Bowen.Harvard for Harverd, Harwad, Harvey (after John Harvard, founder of Harvard College)"alias" surnames
Henslowe for Hencheley, Hynslye (after Philip Henslowe)
Lowen for Lowin (after John Lowen, actor)
Shakespeare for Shakspeare
Allen for Alleyn (after Edward Alleyn, actor and entrepreneur)Culpepper alias Smith
Hodges alias Hedges
Morton alias Morden
Note that most alias surnames are uni-directional (e.g., always Culpepper alias Smith). A few, however, are bi-directional (Badger alias Seering; Seering alias Badger). We record the names as they appear in the token books. A search for either name in an alias pair will produce both names. A search for the word "alias" in the surname field will produce all alias pairs.